Ruhr-Universität Bochum

SPINA is an international academic project that is actively developed and evaluated by scientists in several continents.

The first versions of SPINA Thyr have been developed as a spin-off of a mathematical theory of thyroid homeostasis at the Downtown Medical Hospitals of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich between 1994 and 2000. Initially, the software supported classical Mac OS, in the subsequent years versions for additional platforms including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Palm OS have been developed.

Ensuing versions introduced a plethora of new functions including calculations based on total rather than free thyroid hormones, multi-language support and addressing reference values and substitution therapy with thyroid hormones.

Several case series and trials demonstrated SPINA-GT to correlate with thyroid function and gland volume as obtained via ultrasonography and to have a higher retest reliability than that of TSH, FT4 or FT3. SPINA-GD was shown to be reduced in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) and to be increased in states of hyperdeiodination. Up to now, the method has been evaluated in clinical trials covering more than 10 000 subjects.

Today, SPINA is increasingly used for biomedical research and patient-care in cases of less common thyroid disorders. Results of evaluation studies and the algorithms underlying the mathematical theory have been released in several publications.


Johannes W. Dietrich: Initiator and main developer

Martin Adler: Technical advise

Matthias Holzer: Technical advise

Phil Hess: Technical advise

Martin R. Fischer: General support

C. Renate Pickardt: Content related advice (thyroidology)

Ulla Mitzdorf: Content related advice (mathematical modelling)

Rudolf Hörmann: Content related advice (endocrine cybernetics)

John E. Midgley: Content related advice (endocrine cybernetics)

How to Cite SPINA

SPINA Thyr has been curated by SciCrunch. You may cite SPINA Thyr properly as SPINA Thyr, RRID:SCR_014352. Optionally, you might want to link to http://scicrunch.org/browse/resources/SCR_014352.


Dietrich, J. W., U. Mitzdorf, R. Weitkunat und C. R. Pickardt (1997). "The pituitary-thyroid feedback control: stability and oscillations in a new nonlinear model." Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 20 (Suppl. to no. 5): 100.

Dietrich, J. W., M. R. Fischer, J. Jauch, E. Pantke, R. Gärtner und C. R. Pickardt (1999). "SPINA-THYR: A novel systems theoretic approach to determine the secretion capacity of the thyroid gland." European Journal of Internal Medicine 10 (Suppl. 1) (May 1999): S34.

Dietrich, J. W. (2000). "Signal Storage in Metabolic Pathways: The ASIA Element." kybernetiknet 1 (3, 2000): 1-9. [Original paper]

Dietrich, J. W. (2002). Der Hypophysen-Schilddrüsen-Regelkreis. Entwicklung und klinische Anwendung eines nichtlinearen Modells. Berlin, Logos-Verlag.

Dietrich, J. W., A. Tesche, C. R. Pickardt und U. Mitzdorf (2002). Fractal Properties of the Thyrotropic Feedback Control: Implications of a Nonlinear Model Compared with Empirical Data. In: Cybernetics and Systems 2002. R. Trappl (Hrsg). Vienna, Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies: 329-34.

Dietrich, J. W., A. Tesche, C. R. Pickardt und U. Mitzdorf (2004). "Thyrotropic Feedback Control: Evidence for an Additional Ultrashort Feedback Loop from Fractal Analysis." Cybernetics and Systems 35 (4): 315-31. doi:10.1080/01969720490443354.

Dietrich, J. W. und B. O. Boehm (2006). Equilibrium behaviour of feedback-coupled physiological saturation kinetics. In: Cybernetics and Systems 2006. R. Trappl (Hrsg). Vienna, Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies. 1: 269-74.

Dietrich, J. W., G. Landgrafe, E. H. Fotiadou (2012). TSH and thyrotropic agonists: Key actors in thyroid homeostasis. Journal of Thyroid Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 351864, 29 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/351864.

Hoermann, R., J. E. M. Midgley, R. Larisch, J. W. Dietrich (2013). Is Pituitary Thyrotropin an Adequate Measure Of Thyroid Hormone-Controlled Homeostasis During Thyroxine Treatment?. European Journal of Endocrinology 168(2):271-80. PMID 23184912, doi:10.1530/EJE-12-0819.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Giacobino A, Eckl WA, Wahl HG, Dietrich JW, Larisch R. (2014) Homeostatic Equilibria Between Free Thyroid Hormones and Pituitary Thyrotropin Are Modulated By Various Influences Including Age, Body Mass Index and Treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 81(6):907-15. doi: 10.1111/cen.12527. PMID 24953754.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Larisch R, Dietrich JW (2015). Integration of Peripheral and Glandular Regulation of Triiodothyronine Production by Thyrotropin in Untreated and Thyroxine-Treated Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research 2015; 47(9):674-80, PMID 25750078 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1398616.

Dietrich JW, Müller P, Schiedat F, Schlömicher M, Strauch J, Chatzitomaris A, Klein HH, Mügge A, Köhrle J, Rijntjes E, Lehmphul I. (2015) Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling. Eur Thyroid J. 2015 Jun;4(2):129-37. doi: 10.1159/000381543. PMID 26279999; PMCID PMC4521060.

Midgley JE, Larisch R, Dietrich JW, Hoermann R. (2015) Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency. Endocr Connect. 2015 Dec;4(4):196-205. doi: 10.1530/EC-150056. PMID 26265111. PMCID PMC4557078.

Dietrich JW, Landgrafe-Mende G, Wiora E, Chatzitomaris A, Klein HH., Midgley JE, Hoermann R. (2016) Calculated parameters of thyroid homeostasis: Emerging tools for differential diagnosis and clinical research. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2016; 7:00057. PMID 27375554. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2016.00057.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Larisch R, Dietrich JW (2016). Relational Stability of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Subjects and Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. Eur Thyroid J. 2016 Sep;5(3):171-179. PMID 27843807. doi 10.1159/000447967


SimThyr project entry
                    at sourceforge.net